Histoplasma capsulatum - Histo - South Africa 2006
Histoplasma spores are prevalent in the atmosphere all the time. Our immune systems tolerance is derived by the local level of exposure. Within certain caves, typically low energy systems receding/dropping water table being the key to increased prevalence, the closer to the equator the more the prevalence becomes. Along with all other tropical diseases.

Histoplasma capsulatum is an intelligent Dimorphic Fungus. This does not mean it can make tea. The intellect comes in the form of a transformation from a fungus into a yeast, as the spore settles and defuses through the alveoli membranes of the lung, into the blood stream.
"Calcareous lesions" as reported radiologically historically, have been disproved by direct biopsy. The prevalence of reactive lymph nodes within the lungs specifically in the mediastinum is what we see as a "storm" on the x-ray image.

As with the evolution of the development of your immune system from birth, so too does your immune system learn to tolerate future exposure to volumetrically higher levels of the spores I.e. in a damp dark cave.. The fungus will grow on/in any biological matter if provided a constant Rh, temp and my passion, darkness. Just like within the lungs. An ideal incubator for many diseases. Hence a regular misdiagnosis as tuberculosis or TB.
This is not a bat disease as is portrayed by ignorance historically. Histo can also be cultured in old books in darkened archives. Histo is not a disease that you want to acquire. Therefore anyone exposed to the fungus knowingly, should be exposed with the knowledge that they will have an immune system adjustment. Thereby providing deficits in other possible immunity like the exposure to chemotherapy or other yeast based drugs. Visitors to caves must be informed, which is not happening. Apart from some caving clubs and research organisations.
Histoplasma capsulatum is a yeast borne disease. Yeast bourne diseases are one of the four most deleterious diseases known to human kind. Most prevalent in subterranean ecosystems, along with many other undocumented bacteria, fauna and flora found in this under valued essential component of our carbon and water cycle's.
South Africa's top expert Dr. Celia Young, now retired, is contactable through the South African Laboratory Service. Previously The South African Institute for Medical Research. SAIMR. The Department of Mycology can help with Celia's contact details should you wish to include her in the quest for further karst based knowledge.
Wonder Caves has had no report of histo historically due to the nature of ventilation, modified environment, compaction, oxidization, etc. The correct assumption or description would be a low prevalence or occurrence. Should we be able to detect spores from Histo (impossible due to size) we would find them in both Sterkfontein and Wonder Caves respectfully.
The same can be said for the use of face masks. These filters are typically violated due to the minute size of the African Histopalsma capsulatum spore. Which some authors deem a mutinagen of the American Histoplasma. However this is doubtful, subject to further investigation.
Once a patient contracts Histo, one should be aware of consuming conflicting yeast products and build up of yeasts within your own body (a personal observation), or be aware of yeast sensitivity's as the medical profession refers to. This could become problematic as the patient ages and matures along with the disease. Knowledge and a strong immune system for the patient is the best remedy in this case. Should one contract aggressive histo or have a stressed immune system and contract Histo, Itraconazol is the drug of choice (South Africa pharma - Sporonox) which may be taken with Amphicilin B for the more acute cases. This should be administered under the direct control of a knowledgeable Physician.
Mike Buchanan 2006 CROSA

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